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THE CAROLINA LEGION

"PRESERVING AND HONORING OUR CONFEDERATE MILITARY HERITAGE"


CAROLINA LEGION DRILL MANUAL PROJECT

Microsoft Word 97 Document Link

NOTE

The WORD97 document link above is THE authoritative Legion Manaul copy, and includes all current changes and modifications- additions in red, and deletions with strike-throughs.  An addendum on the last page will chronicle the modifications.  The document appended below is for general reference, and may not be up-to-date.


COMBINED ARMS TACTICS

for the

Exercise & Maneuvers

of

TROOPS WHEN ACTING AS A LEGION

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Prepared Under the Direction of the War Department

By

Bvt. Lt.Col. J.M. Wenger

Raleigh, N.C.

1861


SCHOOL OF THE LEGION

ARTICLE I. LEGION STRUCTURE AND MISSION.

1. Structure of the Legion

The Legion shall be composed of Combined Arms, viz., forces of Artillery, Cavalry, and Infantry, acting under the unified tactical field command of a Brigadier General.

2. Mission of the Legion

The mission of the Legion shall be to provide a highly mobile striking force, maximizing the use of the elements of the combined arms team to close with and destroy the enemy or seize an objective. The three component forces must act in close coordination, and be well trained in the execution of rapid movements.

3. The Component Forces of the Legion and Their Individual Missions

a. Artillery Battery

The horse-drawn Artillery Battery shall comprise a principal offensive and defensive force within the Legion, assuming a position whereby its full force may be brought to bear in the most rapid manner possible.

While circumstances will arise when the other Legion component forces will assume offensive and defensive postures, in general, the pursuit of any objective must be subordinated at all times to the support and protection of the Artillery Battery.

b. Cavalry Battalion

The Infantry Battalions represent the Legion's primary maneuver forces. In the initial deployment phase they shall provide immediate support to the Artillery Battery and conform to the Artillery's offensive and defensive dispositions and movements. They are the Legion Commander's primary attack forces to seize the initiative, and, working in concert with the Artillery and Cavalry, they must exploit any enemy weakness to gain the tactical advantage.

c. Infantry Battalions

The Infantry Battalions shall provide immediate support to the Artillery Battery and conform to the Artillery's offensive and defensive dispositions and movements.


ARTICLE II. FORMATION OF A LEGION ON THE MARCH, OR IN COLUMN.

Subject to the discretion of the Commanding General, the Legion Order of March shall be as follows:

1. Cavalry Advance Guard

The Legion Advance Guard shall be composed of one platoon of Cavalry detached from the Cavalry Main Body, and shall be placed far enough in advance of the Legion so as to provide sufficient intelligence of the ground and enemy dispositions in the Legion's front.

2. Cavalry Main Body

The Cavalry Main Body shall be composed of one platoon of Cavalry and shall comprise the head of the Legion's column proper. This Cavalry force shall be placed at the head of the Artillery Battery in such a manner as to:

a. Provide immediate support and protection to the Artillery Battery if necessary.

b. Provide reinforcement to the Advance Guard when warranted.

c. Participate in coordinated attacks with the Artillery Battery.

3. Artillery Battery

The Artillery Battery shall follow the Cavalry Main Body at close interval and be prepared to act immediately in concert with the cavalry, so as to rapidly exploit offensive opportunities in the Legion's front.

4. Legion Staff and Escort

The Commanding General, his Staff, and Escorting Force shall follow the Artillery Battery at close interval so as to facilitate communication with both the Cavalry Main Body and Advance Guard in front and with the Infantry Force to the rear.

The Escorting Force shall have the responsibility for the rapid relay of commands, where necessary, to the rear elements of the Legion, viz., the 2nd Battalion and Rear Guard.

5. 1st Infantry Battalion

The 1st Infantry Battalion of the Legion shall follow at close interval behind the Legion staff, so as to provide immediate support to the Artillery Battery's right flank where warranted.

6. 2nd Infantry Battalion

The 2nd Infantry Battalion of the Legion shall follow at close interval behind the 1st Infantry Battalion, so as to provide immediate support to the Artillery Battery's left flank where warranted.

7. Cavalry Rear Guard

The Cavalry Rear Guard shall be composed of one platoon of cavalry, and be placed far enough behind the Legion so as to provide sufficient intelligence of developments to the rear of the Legion, and to provide a measure of protection to the rear of the Legion in the event of a surprise on the flanks and rear.

In the event that the Legion is in column with another Brigade to the rear, at the Commanding General's discretion, the Rear Guard may consolidate with the Cavalry Main Body.


ARTICLE III. FORMATION OF A LEGION IN ORDER OF BATTLE, OR IN LINE.

Subject to the discretion of the Commanding General, the disposition of the Legion in Line of Battle shall be as follows:

1. Artillery Battery

The Legion Line of Battle shall be formed about the Artillery, which shall go into battery at a point determined by the Commanding General.

2. Commanding General

The Commanding General, his Staff, and Escorting Force shall take position immediately behind the Artillery Battery, or at some suitable vantage point at the General's discretion.

3. Infantry Battalions

Unless otherwise directed by the Commanding General, when the Legion deploys into Line of Battle, disposition of the Infantry Battalions shall be in columns of companies.

The two Infantry Battalions shall form in support of the Artillery Battery, the 1st Battalion on the Artillery's right flank, and the 2nd Battalion on the Artillery's left flank.

The 1st Companies of the 1st and 2nd Battalions shall deploy as skirmishers in direct support of the Artillery, on the right and left flanks of the Battery respectively.

The remaining companies of the two Infantry Battalions shall form behind the line of the Artillery at a suitable distance conforming to their supporting role, and shall be formed in a column of companies to the rear of their respective skirmish companies.

4. Cavalry

The Cavalry Rear Guard shall consolidate with the Cavalry Main Body..

The Cavalry Main Body shall deploy on the flanks of the Infantry skirmishers an appropriate interval in advance of the skirmish line, with one platoon on the right of the 1st Infantry Battalion skirmishers, and another platoon on the left of the 2nd Infantry Battalion skirmishers.

The Cavalry Advance Guard shall remain in advance of the Legion, or at the discretion of the Cavalry Battalion Commander, shall rally on the Cavalry Main Body, to be deployed at the Cavalry Battalion commander's discretion.


ARTICLE IV. LEGION EVOLUTION FROM COLUMN INTO LINE OF BATTLE TO THE FRONT

At all times, unless otherwise directed by the Commanding General, the Legion's component commands will assume that, that prior to going into Line of Battle, the position of the Artillery Battery shall form the Legion center in Line of Battle.

SECTION 1

To Advance from Column into Line of Battle.

The Commanding General will command:

Legion, Deploy Column to the Front, March.

1. Artillery Battery

Upon the command of execution, the Artillery Battery will immediately, from its position in column, go into battery. Having gone into battery, the Artillery's position becomes the reference point governing the movement of the Legion's other component commands.

2. Cavalry Battalion

Cavalry Main Body

Upon the command of execution, the Cavalry Main Body will proceed by the right flank, fronting in a position to the right of and slightly ahead of the Artillery Battery, leaving between its left flank and the Artillery Battery a sufficient interval for a skirmish company from the 1st Infantry Battalion.

Cavalry Rear Guard

Upon the command of execution, the Cavalry Rear Guard shall proceed with utmost speed to the head of the column and thence proceed by the left flank, fronting in a position to the left of, and slightly ahead of the Artillery Battery, leaving between its right flank and the Artillery Battery a sufficient interval for a skirmish company from the 2nd Infantry Battalion.

Cavalry Advance Guard

Upon the command of execution, unless otherwise directed by the Cavalry Battalion Commanding Officer, the Cavalry Advance Guard shall maintain its position in advance of the Legion.

3. Commanding General, Staff, and Escort

Following the command of execution, the Commanding General and his Staff will maintain their position behind the Artillery Battery. The Escort will insure that the order of the Commanding General is properly understood by the rear elements of the Legion.

4. 1st Infantry Battalion

Following the command of execution, the Battalion shall:

a. Form a column of companies.

b. Proceed by the right flank.

c. Halt when the left guides clear the Artillery's right flank by a interval of ten paces.

d. Front, in a column of companies.

The 1st Company shall deploy as skirmishers on the left file, moving forward into the gap defined by the Artillery Battery's right flank and the Cavalry's left flank.

5. 2nd Infantry Battalion

Following the command of execution, the Battalion shall:

a. Form a column of companies.

b. Proceed by the left flank.

c. Halt when the right guides clear the Artillery's left flank by a interval of ten paces.

d. Front, in a column of companies.

The 1st Company shall deploy as skirmishers on the right file moving forward into the gap defined by the Artillery Battery's left flank and the Cavalry's right flank.

SECTION 2

To Advance from Column into Line of Battle - Artillery Battery Shifts Right or Left.

The Commanding General will command:

Legion, Deploy Column to the Front, Artillery to the Right, March.

or

Legion, Deploy Column to the Front, Artillery to the Left, March.

1. Artillery Battery

Upon the command of execution, the Artillery Battery will immediately, from its position in column, proceed by the right or left flank, and, as directed by the Commanding General, go into battery. Having gone into battery, the Artillery's position becomes the reference point governing the movement of the Legion's other component commands.

2.. Cavalry and Infantry Battalions

Upon the command of execution, the Cavalry and Infantry Battalions shall proceed by the right or left flank, conforming to the movement of the Artillery. When the Artillery goes into battery, the cavalry will halt, front, and proceed with deployment into line as prescribed in Article IV, Section 1.


ARTICLE V. LEGION EVOLUTION FROM COLUMN INTO LINE OF BATTLE TO THE LEFT OR RIGHT

At all times, unless otherwise directed by the Commanding General, the Legion's component commands will assume that, that prior to going into Line of Battle, the position of the Artillery Battery shall form the Legion center in Line of Battle.

SECTION 1

To Advance from Column into Line of Battle to the Left.

The Commanding General will command:

Legion, Deploy Column to the Left, March.

1. Artillery Battery

Upon the command of execution, the Artillery Battery will immediately, from its position in column, proceed by the left flank for a interval of 25 yards and immediately go into battery.

Having gone into battery, the Artillery's position becomes the reference point governing the movement of the Legion's other component commands.

2. Cavalry Battalion

Cavalry Main Body

Upon the command of execution, the Cavalry Main Body will proceed by the left flank, conforming to the movement of the Artillery Battery. When the Artillery goes into battery, the Cavalry shall position itself relative to the Artillery as prescribed in Article IV, Section 1, Nunber.2.

Cavalry Rear Guard

Upon the command of execution, the Cavalry Rear Guard shall proceed by the left flank for a interval of 25 yards, proceed by the right flank, halt, and position itself relative to the Artillery as prescribed in Article IV, Section 1, Number.2.

Cavalry Advance Guard

Upon the command of execution, unless otherwise directed by the Cavalry Battalion Commanding Officer, the Cavalry Advance Guard shall, with utmost speed, proceed by the left flank so as to gain an appropriate position in advance of the Legion.

3. Commanding General, Staff, and Escort

Following the command of execution, the Commanding General and his Staff will follow behind the Artillery, positioning itself relative to the Artillery as prescribed in Article IV, Section 1, Number.3.

4. 1st Infantry Battalion

Following the command of execution, the Battalion shall form a column of companies.

When the Artillery goes in battery, the Battalion will proceed forward, and thence head of column to the left, positioning itself relative to the Artillery as prescribed in Article IV, Section 1, Number.4.

5. 2nd Infantry Battalion

Following the command of execution, the Battalion shall form a column of companies.

When the Artillery goes in battery, the Battalion will proceed forward, and thence head of column to the left, positioning itself relative to the Artillery as prescribed in Article IV, Section 1, Number.5.

SECTION 2

To Advance from Column into Line of Battle to the Right.

The Commanding General will command:

Legion, Deploy Column to the Right, March.

1. Artillery Battery

Upon the command of execution, the Artillery Battery will immediately, from its position in column, proceed by the right flank for a interval of 25 yards and immediately go into battery.

Having gone into battery, the Artillery's position becomes the reference point governing the movement of the Legion's other component commands.

2. Cavalry Battalion

Unless otherwise directed by the Cavalry Battalion commander, the order of that unit's component platoons shall be by inversion.

Cavalry Main Body

Upon the command of execution, the Cavalry Main Body will proceed for an interval of 35 yards and thence, by the right flank, conforming to the movement of the Artillery Battery. When the Artillery goes into battery, the Cavalry shall position itself relative to the Artillery as prescribed for the Cavalry Rear Guard in Article IV, Section 1, Nunber.2.

Cavalry Rear Guard

Upon the command of execution, the Cavalry Rear Guard shall proceed by the right flank for a interval of 35 yards, proceed by the left flank, and position itself relative to the Artillery as prescribed for the Cavalry Main Body in Article IV, Section 1, Number.2.

Cavalry Advance Guard

Upon the command of execution, unless otherwise directed by the Cavalry Battalion Commanding Officer, the Cavalry Advance Guard shall, with utmost speed, proceed by the right flank so as to gain an appropriate position in advance of the Legion.

3. Commanding General, Staff, and Escort

Following the command of execution, the Commanding General and his Staff will follow behind the Artillery, positioning itself relative to the Artillery as prescribed in Article IV, Section 1, Number.3.

4. 1st Infantry Battalion

Following the command of execution, the Battalion shall halt and form a column of companies.

When the Artillery goes in battery, the Battalion will proceed forward, and thence head of column to the right, positioning itself relative to the Artillery as prescribed in Article IV, Section 1, Number.4.

5. 2nd Infantry Battalion

Following the command of execution, the Battalion shall form a column of companies.

When the Artillery goes in battery, the Battalion will proceed forward past the rear of the 1st Battalion and Artillery, and thence, proceed head of column to the right, positioning itself relative to the Artillery as prescribed in Article IV, Section 1, Number.5.


ARTICLE VI. EVOLUTION OF THE INFANTRY BATTALIONS INTO LINE FROM COLUMNS OF COMPANIES

With the Legion deployed to the front, and with the Infantry Battalions deployed into two columns of companies, at the discretion of the Commanding General, he will command:

Legion, Infantry Battalions into line, MARCH.

Unless otherwise directed, the Artillery Battery and Cavalry Battalion will stand fast.

SECTION 1

To Deploy the 1st Infantry Battalion in Line of Battle.

1. Upon the command of execution, the 1st Battalion will proceed, head of column to the right, guide left.

2. When the last company wheels to the right the Battalion will halt, and the Battalion Commander will command:

Left into line, WHEEL.  HALT.

SECTION 2

To Deploy the 2nd Infantry Battalion in Line of Battle

1. Upon the command of execution, the 2nd Battalion will hold position momentarily to allow the left guides of the 1st Battalions to mark and establish the infantry Line of Battle.

2. The 2nd Battalion will shift to the left an interval of one company by marching by the left flank until the companies' right guides overtake the left guides' former position, and thence, will halt.

3. The Battalion commander will then command:

Forward into line, by company, left half wheel, MARCH.  Right turn, MARCH.  HALT.

4. The 2nd Battalion will then front and march forward until the right guide of the 1st Company gains the line established by the left guides of the 1st Battalion, and then will halt.

5. Following deployment into Line of Battle, the 2nd battalion will dress on the 1st Battalion.


ARTICLE VII. EVOLUTION OF THE INFANTRY BATTALIONS INTO COLUMNS OF COMPANIES FROM LINE OF BATTLE

With the Legion deployed to the front, and with the Infantry Battalions deployed into Line of Battle, at the discretion of the Commanding General, he will command:

Legion, Infantry Battalions into columns of companies, MARCH.

Unless otherwise directed, the Artillery Battery and Cavalry Battalion will stand fast.

SECTION 1

To Form the 1st Infantry Battalion in Column of Companies

1. Upon the command of execution, the 1st Battalion will face left, form a column of companies in inversion, and proceed, head of column to the left, guiding right upon completion of the wheel.

2. When the last company wheels to the left., the Battalion will halt and face by the front rank.

SECTION 2

To Form the 2nd Infantry Battalion in Column of Companies

1. Upon the command of execution, the Battalion Commander will mark the position of the 1st Company right guide.

2. The Battalion will then face left, form a column of companies in inversion, and countermarch left.

3. When the right guide of the 1st Company gains the line of his former position, the Battalion will proceed head of column to the right.

4. When the last company completes its right wheel, the Battalion will halt and face by the front rank.


ARTICLE VIII.  LEGION EVOLUTION IN CHANGE OF FRONT FORWARD

Unless otherwise directed by the Commanding General, anychange of front forward will be regulated by the 1st Infantry Battalion.

Unless otherwise directed, the Cavalry Battalion will conform generally to the Legion during a change of front forward, with the Battalion Commander exercising his discretion as dictated by the ground and enemy dispositions.

SECTION 1

To Change Front Forward to the Right

1. Prior to issuing the command to change front forward, the Commanding General will order the 1st Infantry Battalion Commander to place two markers on the new direction before the position to be occupied by the 1st Infantry Battalion, and order the Battalion to establish position on those markers.

2. The Battalion shall wheel on a fixed pivot and align itself on the markers.

3. These dispositions being made, the General will command:

Legion, Change front forward on the 1st Battalion, By command, right half wheel, MARCH.

4. Upon the command of execution, the Artillery Battery and 2nd Infantry Battalion shall wheel to the right on a fixed pivot. When the General determines that the Legion components have sufficiently wheeled, he will command:

Forward, MARCH. Guide RIGHT.

5. The Legion components ceasing to wheel will then march forward until each command arrives at the point where it should turn into line, as established by the regulating command. At this juncture the Legion components will, by command, turn right into line.

SECTION 2

To Change Front Forward to the Left

1. Change of front forward to the left shall be executed in the manner prescribed in Article VIII, Section 1, excepting that the wheels and turns specified with be in the opposite direction.


ARTICLE IX. LEGION EVOLUTION IN CHANGE OF FRONT TO THE REAR

Unless otherwise directed by the Commanding General, any change of front to the rear will be regulated by the 1st Infantry Battalion.

Unless otherwise directed, the Cavalry Battalion will conform generally to the Legion during a change of front to the rear, with the Battalion Commander exercising his discretion as dictated by the ground and enemy dispositions.

SECTION I.

To Change Front to the Rear to the Right

1. Prior to issuing the command to change front to the rear, the Commanding General will order the 1st Infantry Battalion Commander to place two markers on the new direction to be occupied by the Battalion, and will order the Battalion to establish position on those markers.

2. The Battalion then shall face by the rear rank, wheel right on a fixed pivot, align itself on the markers, and face by the front rank.

3. These dispositions being made, the General will command:

Change front to the rear on the 1st Battalion, Legion, about FACE. By command, right half wheel, MARCH.

4. Upon the command of execution, the Artillery Battery and the 2nd Infantry Battalion shall wheel to the right on a fixed pivot. When the General determines that the Legion components have sufficiently wheeled, he will command:

Forward, MARCH. Guide LEFT.

5. The Legion components ceasing to wheel will then march forward until each command arrives at the point where it should turn into line, as established by the regulating command. At this juncture the Legion components will, by command, turn left into line and face by the front rank.

SECTION 2

To Change Front to the Rear to the Left

1. Change of front to the rear to the left shall be executed in the manner prescribed in Article IX, Section 1, excepting that the wheels and turns specified will be in the opposite direction.

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ADDENDUM - DOCUMENT CHANGES

01.04.2001 - David Stanley

Article I./Number 2 text addition & changes

Article I./Number 3a text addition & changes

Article I./Number 3b text addition

Article I./Number 3c text addition

01.18.2001 - Mike Wenger

Article VI. new article added

Article VII. new article added

Article VIII. new article added

Article IX. new article added

Text Additions in RED and BOLD

Orders of Execution Capitalized

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